FOREIGN LANGUAGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 3
Language Curriculum Development
Language Curriculum Development is concerned with principles, process and procedures for the planning, [delivery]/implementation, management, and assessment of language teaching and leaning.
Rationale : in order to plan for successful and effective educational language program
Principle of Language Curriculum Design
1. General Principle
- external relevance – social needs/dynamics
- internal relevance – the coherence
b. Flexibility – to anticipate now and future, here and other places, students coming from different background and ability.
c. Continuity- language teaching learning experience are interrelated/sustained.
d. Practicality/Efficiency – can be implemented by using available facilities and minimal/low fee.
e. Effectiveness – good quantity and quality as the manifestation of government education policy.
2. Specific Principles
- Principle related to the educational goal. The goal is the center of all teaching- learning activities.
- Principle related to the educational content. The content should be suitable with the learners’ needs.
- Principle related to the choice of teaching-learning process. It considers the methods/techniques, sequencing, etc. that can make the students learn.
- Principle related to the choice of teaching media/aids.
- Principle related to the choice of evaluation, whether oral or written, essay or objective, etc
Language Curriculum Developer
1. Education Administrator, they are:
- Directorate General of Education
- Directorate of Curriculum Development Center
- Head of Provincial Office
- Head of Regent Office
- Head of District Office
Based on the scientific concepts given by experts in education, curriculum, and science, no. 1 and 2 determine the rules, frameworks, and core program. The experts give alternative of education concept, and curriculum model. They also give education orientation, system and model (design, instruction, media, management, and evaluation).
No. 3 until no. 6 develop it based on the local needs. The headmaster always develops and implements curriculum and he supports guides the teachers of each subject in implementing the curriculum.
Teacher as implement: The teacher is the person who implements the curriculum.
Teacher as developer: The teacher develops the syllabus/curriculum in the classroom.
Teacher as designer: The teacher design the syllabus before teaching-learning process.
Teacher as translator: The teacher translates/practices the curriculum in the classroom.
Teacher as evaluator: The teacher evaluates the curriculum implementation.
By doing this the teacher can know the advantages and constraints of the curriculum implemented.
3. Students Parents
They, who have time and adequate knowledge and experience, have role in curriculum design, especially those who belong School Committee and they also have role in curriculum implementation , e.g. giving feedback when receiving the study progress of their children, input in helping their children do the homework.
Factors Influencing Curriculum Development
According to Sukmadinata (1999: 158-160)there are three factors:
- University as the development center of science and technology and the development of teacher training education (LPTK).
- Society has dynamic demands and needs.
- Value System; moral, religious, social, cultural, and politic that exist in society should be integrated in the curriculum developed.
Approach to Curriculum Development
According to Dakir (2004:90-92), there are three approaches in curriculum development:
- Materials-based Approach
- Goal-based Approach
- Competency-based Approach
Model of Curriculum Renewal (Sukmadinata, 1999: 161-171)
The Administrative Model = The Line Staff Model = The Top-down Model
The Grass Roots Model = The Bottom-up Model
The Demonstration Model
Taba’s Inverted Model = The Traditional Model
Roger’s Interpersonal Relation Model – from society
The Systemic Action-research Model –based on social change.
Emerging Technical Model: This model is caused by the development of science and technology. This model is divided into three models:
The Behavioral Research Model
- The System Analysis Model
- The Computer-based Model