FOREIGN LANGUAGE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 4
The estimation of the growth and progress of students towards objectives or values of the curriculum (Wright (1966) in Sukmadinata, 1999: 173).
Evaluation is a matter of judging the fitness of something for a particular purposes. Evaluation is, then, concerned with relative merit. There is no absolute good or bad – only degrees of fitness for the required purpose.
To know the degree of fitness of a curriculum with the school environment, teachers, students, facilities available.
Models of Curriculum Evaluation
Based on Sukmadinata (1999: 185-189)
- Research Evaluation Model
- Objective Evaluation Model
- Multivariation-mixed Model
- Stake’s Model (Based on Mardapi (2001: 12))
Approach to Curriculum Evaluation
Brady (1992) in Mardapi (2001: 11) revealed that Approach to Curriculum Evaluation are:
- Armchair Approach
- Visceral Approach
- Contentment Approach
- Concensus Approach
- Cosmetic Approach
- Statistical Approach
- Tentacle Approach
Steps in Curriculum Evaluation
Brinkerhoff, et al. (1983) in Mardapi (2001:11) said that Steps in Curriculum Evaluation are:
- focusing the evaluation
- planning the evaluation
- collecting data
- analyzing data
- making report
Terms and Concepts
Language Teaching Materials are one of formal components of language curriculum
Language Teaching Materials are what to teach to our learners.
Language Teaching Materials are sometimes called Language Learning Materials or Instructional Materials or just Materials.
Language Teaching Materials (LTM) are a key component in most language programs , and generally serve as the basis for much of the language input learners receive and the language practice that occurs in the classroom, they may also serve as a form of teacher training.
Role of Instructional Materials
Languange production, for example are:
- Delivering speech
- Writing research paper, etc
Notion and Concept of Language Teaching Materials
- Essentially LTM as content in language teaching learning process deals with
- Language elements (sounds —> discourses)
- Language skills (macroskills and microskills)
- Language aspects (vocabulary, pronunciation, structure)
- Language functions ( genre —> spoof, etc.)
- Language notions (time, mode, aspect)
- Language use (L1, L2 (SL), FL )
- Language rules(knowledge)
Language Teaching Materials Concept
LTM refer to anything which is used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of a language.
LTM could obviously be cassettes, videos, CD-Roms, dictionaries, grammar books, readers, workbooks or photocopied exercises. They could also be newspapers, magazines, food packages, photographs, live talks by invited native speakers, instructions given by a teacher, tasks written on cards or discussions between learners. In other words, they can be anything which is deliberately used to increase the learners’ knowledge and/or experience of the language.
Role of Instructional Materials
Teaching Materials are a key component in most language program.
For inexperienced teachers, materials may serve as a form of teacher training, they provide ideas how to plan and teach lessons as well as formats that the teachers can use.
Cunningsworth (1995:7) summarizes the role of materials in language teaching as follows:
- a resource for presentation materials
- a source of activities for learner practice and
- a communicative interaction
- a reference source for learners on structure, vocabulary, and pronunciation
- a source of stimulation and ideas for classroom activities
- a syllabus
- a support for less experienced teachers who have yet to gain in confidence
Kind of Instructional Materials
Instructional Materials are divided into :
1. Commercial Materials, they are:
- Printed Materials: books, workbooks, readers, etc.
- Non-printed Materials: audio materials, videos, computer-based materials (CALL)
- Materials that comprise both printed and non-printed materials: self-access materials and materials on the internet
- Materials not designed for instructional use: magazines, newspapers, and TV materials, journals, peiodicals, etc
2. Teacher-made Materials: materials which are made by the teacher.
Authentic VS Created Materials
Authentic Materials refer to the use in teaching of texts, photographs, video selection, and other teaching resources that were not specially prepared for pedagogic purposes.
Created Materials refer to textbooks and others specially developed for instructional resources.
|ADVANTAGES OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS||DISADVANTAGES OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS|
|They have positive effect on learner because they are intrinsically more interesting and motivating,They provide cultural information about the target culture,They provide exposure to real language||They often contain difficult language that often become burden for the teacher.|
Open new horizon/inspiration/ideas and what the learners can do next —> writing articles, conducting research, writing research paper, etc.
Good materials don’t teach but they can motivate learners to learn. They will work like magic if they are:
- M – Motivating and Meaningful
- A – Authentic and Appropriate
- G – Graded and Graphic
- I – Interesting, Interactive, and Integrated
- C – Contextualized and Creative (Rajan, 2003)
Good materials do not teach, they encourage learner to learn. Based on Hutchinson and Waters, 1994: 107, Good materials will, therefore, contain:
Enjoyable activities/exercises, which engage the learners’ thinking capacities,
Opportunities for learners to use their existing knowledge and skills,
Content which both learner and teacher can cope with
Good Materials based on Tomlinson, 1998: 7-21:
- Materials should achieve impact,
- Materials should help learners to feel at ease,
- Materials should help learners to develop confidence,
- Materials should be relevant and useful,
- Materials should require and facilitate learner self-investment,
- Materials should make the learners ready to acquire the points being taught,
- Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use,
- Materials should draw the learners’ attention to linguistic features of the input,
- Materials should provide the learners with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes,
- Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed,
- Materials should take into account that learners differ in learning styles,
- Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitudes,
- Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction,
- Materials should maximize learning potential,
- Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice,
- Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback.
So based on above explanation, the characteristic of Good Materials are:
1. Materials can achieve impact through:
- attractive presentation
- appealing content
2. Materials can help learners to feel at ease if:
- materials have lots of white space,
- texts and illustration are related their own culture,
- ” voice” is relaxed and supportive
3. Materials should help learners to develop confidence
Relaxed and self-confident learners learn faster (Dulay, et al., 1982).
They try to help the learners to feel successful by asking them to use simple language to accomplish easy tasks.
4. Materials should be relevant and useful
In ESP materials, the teaching points are relevant and useful by relating them to known learner interests and to ‘real-life’ tasks which the learners need to perform in the target language/situation
5. Materials should facilitate learner self-investment
Materials should aid learner to make efficient use of the resources in order to facilitate self-discovery.
It can achieved by: (a) providing them with choices of focus and activity, ( b) giving them topic control, ( c ) engaging them in learner-centered discovery activities.
6. Materials should make the learners ready to acquire the points being taught
- Certain structures are acquired only when learners are mentally ready for them (Dulay, et al., 1982).
7. Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use
This can be done through:
- the advice the materials give,
- the instruction for their activities,
- the spoken and written texts,
- they include, and also,
- interviewing the teacher, listening to the radio.
8. Materials should draw the learners’ attention to linguistic features of the input
The learners become aware of a gap between particular feature of inter-language and the equivalent feature in the target language.
9. Materials should provide the learners with opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purpose.
The learners should be given opportunities to use language for communication rather than just tom practice it in situations controlled by the teacher and the materials.
In addition, communicative interaction can provide opportunities for picking up language from the new input generated as well as opportunities for learner output to become an informative source of input (Sharwood-Smith, 1981).
10. Materials should take into account that positive effects of instruction are usually delayed
Research into language acquisition shows that it is gradual rather than instantaneous process.
The conventional textbook approach of PPP (Presentation – Practice – Production) could be used to promote durable learning.
11. Materials should take into account that learners differ in learning styles
Styles of learning which need to be catered for in language learning materials include:
- visual – the language is written down
- auditory – the language is heard/listened
- kinesthetic – to do something physical (following instructions)
- studial – to conscious attention to linguistic features
- experiential – to use language in communication
- analytic – to learn language one by one (discrete bits of language)
- global– to respond t0 whole chunks of a language at a time
- dependent – to learn a language from a teacher and from a book
- independent – to learn from their own experience of the language and to use autonomous learning strategies.